Current as of: June, 1999
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412  DF  .~> Of polycarbonate
413  DF  .~> Of epoxy ether {3}
419  DF  .~> Of polythioether
420  DF  .~> Including interfacial reaction product of adjacent layers
421  DF  .~> Of fluorinated addition polymer from unsaturated monomers {1}
422.8  DF  .~> Of polyisocyanurate
423.1  DF  .~> Of polyamidoester (polyurethane, polyisocyanate, polycarbamate, etc.) {11}
426  DF  .~> Of quartz or glass {9}
443  DF  .~> Of asbestos {2}
446  DF  .~> Of silicon containing (not as silicon alloy) {6}
455  DF  .~> Of cork {1}
457  DF  .~> Of metal {8}
473  DF  .~> Of animal membrane or skin
473.5  DF  .~> Of polyimide
474.4  DF  .~> Of polyamide {8}
480  DF  .~> Of polyester (e.g., alkyd, etc.) {3}
484  DF  .~> Of wax or waxy material {1}
489  DF  .~> Of bituminous or tarry residue {1}
492  DF  .~> Of natural rubber {3}
497  DF  .~> Of natural gum, rosin, natural oil or lac {1}
500  DF  .~> Of addition polymer from unsaturated monomers {6}
524  DF  .~> Of aldehyde or ketone condensation product {2}
532  DF  .~> Of carbohydrate {3}
688  DF  .~> Of inorganic material {1}
704  DF  .~> Of B, N, P, S, or metal-containing material


Classification: 428/411.1

(under the class definition) Stock material comprising plural layers* or surfaces, adhered or cohered to each other, identified by the composition of the layers*, and not elsewhere provided for.

(1) Note. Each and every layer disclosed, whether considered in the document as a base* layer* or an adhesive layer, is construed to be a separate layer for purposes of placement in this or indented subclasses. No distinction is made in consideration of whether a layer is an adhesive, prime coat, thin film or base*; each is considered to be an individual layer. For a detailed explanation of the principles used as the basis of classification of the group, i.e., the "layer-pair" concept see section IV of this definition of this class (428).

(2) Note. A claimed pair of layers is read in the light of the disclosure. A patent claiming merely metal* adhered to glass*, and disclosing that the metal* and glass* are actually bonded by an epoxy* resin, is placed on the basis of the two pairs, glass* -epoxy* and metal* -epoxy*. Thus, the "original" copy of this patent is placed in subclass 415 and a copy is cross-referenced in subclass 416.

(3) Note. In each of the indented subclasses, the layer is identified by an ingredient, sole or otherwise; i.e., such layer includes, but need not be solely composed of, the material by which the layer is identified.

(4) Note. A disclosure of a layer* which is comprised of copolymerized material is placed in the first appearing subclass in the schedule which provides for the polymer, e.g., a patent claiming a laminate of a copolymer of styrene (addition polymer from unsaturated monomers*) and alkyd* (polyester*) is placed under polyester*. A patent to a

laminate including a layer containing mixtures is placed as an original on the basis of the ingredient provided for in the first appearing subclass and cross-referenced in all other subclasses which provide for the other ingredients.

(5) Note. In this group of subclasses, the "original" copy of a patent claiming several pairs will be placed in the first appearing subclass providing for a claimed pair and other copies cross-referenced to all other subclasses providing for other claimed pairs. In the case of disclosed but not claimed pairs, only those disclosures which add to the broad general concept of a particular subclass will be cross-referenced to that subclass. As an example of this discretionary use of cross-references, a disclosure of phenol-formaldehyde* next to paper* (admittedly old) would not be cross-referenced in subclass 531, but a disclosure of a resin comprising 83% phenol-formaldehyde and 17% cresol-formaldehyde next to paper would be cross-referenced in subclass 531 (provided it was not known that a disclosure of the specific layer* pair already existed therein). Briefly, the basic principles which determine placement of the original copy of a patent in this or an indented subclass are: (1) only claimed subject matter is relied upon when comparing coordinate "first-line indent" subclasses (e.g., subclasses 98 and 411) of this class; (2) such original copy will be placed in the first-occurring "first-line indent" subclass which provides for the claimed subject matter; however, where such "first-line indent" subclass has a further indented subclass which specifically provides for more specific claimed subject matter, the original copy will be placed in the further indented subclass; (3) an original copy containing, for example, two claims where one such claim is provided for in a subclass which is indented under a superior subclass which provides for the other claim, will be placed in such superior and generic subclass (since it is first occurring) and crossed into the indented subclass; (4) as between coordinate subclasses (e.g., subclasses 435 and 436) which are indented under the same "first-line indent" subclass, the original copy of a patent will be placed in the first-occurring of the coordinate subclasses which provides for the claimed subject matter. Once placement of the original copy of a patent has been determined, a cross-reference copy of the patent is mandatory in every subclass in this group (411+) (or in any other class) which provides for other separately claimed subject matter. Cross-reference copies may be placed in any subclass where the disclosed subject matter is considered to render the patent a useful reference, for example in subclasses superior to subclass 411 in this class.

(6) Note. To be considered a "laminate" for inclusion in this class at least two layers of surfaces must be indicated by name or composition. The laminate may include surfaces which are bonded solely by molecular attraction as e.g., vinylidene chloride to another material or to a second layer of vinylidene chloride, provided an interface can be

detected. Where a particular "layer" of the composite is identified in the claims in only functional terms, e.g., only as a "substrate", the patent is classified as an original in the first appearing subclass provided for a material named in the claims, and may be cross-referenced to those subclasses providing for materials only disclosed and not claimed; see the rule of thumb elaborated on in (5) Note. above.

(7) Note. Exceptions to the general scheme of the nonstructural schedule are: (a) urea-aldehyde is not classified with polyamide* but with aldehyde or ketone condensation product*. See notes to subclasses 474+ and 524. (b) a patent directed to a laminate of pyroxylin* (which usually is plasticized with camphor and/or castor oil) is placed as a cellulosic* or broadly carbohydrate* layer rather than natural oil or natural gum*. See notes to subclasses 497 and 532. (c) an acetal of polyvinyl alcohol is both an addition polymer from unsaturated monomers* and an aldehyde condensation product* and consequently is classified in the subclass which appears first in the schedule. A patent to a laminate including a layer of an acetal of polyvinyl alcohol will be placed in the appropriate first appearing subclass directed to an addition polymer from unsaturated monomers* or to an aldehyde or ketone condensation* product as explained in (4) Note above.

(8) Note. All layers or surfaces as claimed in the patents of these subclasses (411+), are coextensive. If a layer is claimed in terms of sized relative to another layer, such limitation is regarded as structural, so that the patent will be placed in the appropriate subclass above; (see especially subclasses 44+, 77+, 189+, 195+, and 212+).

(9) Note. In the subclasses directed to papers, indented under this subclass (411 nonstructural laminates), the product is a laminate which incorporates as the paper* layer a finished paper* product. For purposes of placement in the indented subclasses, the term paper*, standing alone and without further elaboration, in a patent will be construed to mean a self-sustaining layer of cellulosic* fibers*, as exemplified by paper, per se, cardboard, pasteboard or water laid wood pulp. This class (428) has the same residual relation to Class 162, Paper Making and Fiber Liberation, as it has to other stock material classes. Thus, a patent to a paper-including laminate, produced by a process provided for in Class 162, will be placed in that class.

(10) Note. A patent to a web, sheet or single-layer product, of material described in nonstructural terms, is placed in the appropriate material or composition class. This rule holds even where a single layer of one material is completely impregnated with a second material, with only a few exceptions. (See subclass 539.5, 540 and 541 of this class 428). Relative thereto, alloys and other compositions of free metal are found in Classes 75 and 420; Inorganic chemical compounds and nonmetal elements such as carbon fabric are found in Class 423; hydrocarbon products are found

in Class 585; Synthetic Resins are found in Classes 520-529; other organic (carbon) compounds are found in Class 260 and its daughter Classes 530-570; other coating and plasted compositions are in Classes 106 and 501; medicinal or biocidal or hair or skin treating compostions are found in Class 424; compositions of general use are found in Class 252. The superiority of these and other material or composition classes is set forth in (2) Note under the class definition of Class 106.


77+, 189+, 195+, and 614, for a laminate comprising layers that are not coextensive and see (8) Note above.

85+, for a laminate including a layer a layer or component* which has a pile or nap or flock surface.

98+, for a laminate stock material that is claimed in terms of its structure. 221+, for a laminate stock material that is claimed in terms of the structure of one of its components* or textile*.

304.4+, for a composite having a porous layer.

615+, for a composite having two or more adjacent layers of free metal.


33, Geometrical Instruments,

567, for plural layer product disclosed solely for use as a gauge block*.

106, Compositions: Coating or Plastic, appropriate subclasses for a coating composition.

156, Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,

325+, for the use of a particular adhesive in laminating process.

162, Paper Making and Fiber Liberation, especially

100+, for a laminate including paper*, which laminate is produced by a process provided for in that class (162); and see Search Class note under IV in the class definition of this class (161) and (9) Note above.

252, Compositions, appropriate subclasses, for a single layer or mass of a composition of general use; and especially 9+, for a lubricant; subclass 62 for an insulating composition; subclass 62.3 for a barrier layer composition;

subclass 478 for an X-ray shield composition; and subclasses 301.2+ for a fluorescent or phosphorescent composition; and see (12) Note above.

403, Joints and Connections, appropriate subclasses for a connection or seal between two members at substantially a single locus, where the structure or shape (e.g., ring, flange, angular) relation of at least one of the members is specifically recited.

427, Coating Processes, appropriate subclasses for the method of coating a base* with a nonpreformed layer.

442, Fabric (Woven, Knitted, or Nonwoven Textile or Cloth, etc.), appropriate subclasses for a laminate including a fabric layer.

520, Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers, for a resin or natural rubber adhesive or composition containing same used as an adhesive in a laminate, and see the (11) Note, above.