Class Notes

Current as of: June, 1999
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Classification: 428/

This class accommodates certain products of manufacture which are not provided for in classes devoted primarily to manufacturing methods and apparatus. The bulk of the documents are directed to stock material composites, that is, materials having two or more distinct components which are more ordered than a mere random mixture of ingredients.

Certain finished articles, generally of an ornamental or readily disposable nature, are placed herein when this class specifically provides for them. Unfinished articles, e.g., blanks requiring further significant shaping to be suitable for ultimate use, and stock materials from which an indefinite number of usable portions may be cut, are placed herein unless specifically provided for elsewhere. The determination whether a product is a finished article or a stock material is made on the basis of the amount of structure included in the body of the claims.

A patent for this class is placed herein generally without regard to the process by which it is made, for example, without regard to whether the plural layer product was formed by extrusion, coating, or assembly of preformed layers.

Therefore, unless otherwise clearly stated, the term "coating" or "layer" will include a preform as well as a layer formed by covering a base with a fluent material which then solidifies. A comprehensive search for processes of making the products of this class will be found in the

manufacturing classes listed below.

An asterisk has been applied to certain terms throughout this bulletin to indicate that these terms have specific definitions in the Glossary, which should be consulted.

The asterisk has been applied to identify the term in the first appearing definition which must be considered for the desired subclass title.

It should be noted that there are two sections for the glossary. The first one applies generally to the structural areas of the schedule; the second applies to materials (e.g., compound, composition, etc.). It should further be noted, however, that the structural areas of the class also include some subclasses directed to materials.

Both sections of the glossary should be consulted. This is the residual class for:

A. Stock material in the form of a structurally defined web*, sheet*, rod*, strand*, fiber*, filament*, cell*, flake*, particle* not provided elsewhere.

B. Stock material in the form of a web*, sheet*, mass* or layer* which consists of or contains a structurally defined constituent* or element* not provided elsewhere.

C. A nonstructural laminate defined merely in terms of the composition of one or more layers* not provided elsewhere.

D. An article* of manufacture not provided for elsewhere.

E. An intermediate-article* which is not provided for elsewhere and from which a final article is to be made.

F. A process for applying an impregnating material to a naturally solid product such as a wood beam, a sheet of leather or a stone, or for applying a coating to a base, and which process includes no significant method step. Such a patent is placed in the schedule on the disclosed product produced, whether structural or nonstructural. See section VI, C, 6, below, reference to Class 427, Coating Processes, for guide lines which are to be followed in determining whether or not a process step is significant, for classification in Class 427, or not significant for placement in Class 428.


This class comprises several major subclass groups which can be identified by reading down the first-line indent subclasses, and a special category for metallic* materials which parallels the arrangement provided for nonmetallic* materials, insofar as this arrangement is applicable. These major groups and parallel metallic* groups are:

A. Subclasses 1 through 39 and 576 provide for special articles* generally defined in all three dimensions, for which there is no provision elsewhere, and subclasses 542 and 577+ provide for intermediate-articles*.

B. Subclasses 40 through 84, 571 through 575 and 586 through 591 provide for a special web* or sheet*. C. Subclasses 85+ for special surface characteristics of the pile or nap type.

D. Subclasses 98+, 357+, 544-570, 592-604, 606-614, and 687 provide for stock material either in the form of a web* or sheet*, or an element* (e.g., rod*, fiber*, filament*, particle*, flake*, etc.), respectively, which of and by itself is structurally defined as claimed.

Some examples of a structurally defined web* or sheet* are: (1) particular shape, particular size, or other physical configuration. (2) including an external mechanical fastener so as to be attached to another object. (3) components* or elements* arranged relative to each other or to a surface. (4) components* having same characteristic but in different degree. (5) a discontinuous coating, impregnation or bond. (6) variation in thickness or in planarity. (7) attachment of components* by stitching and bond or coating. (8) apertures. (9) surface finish. (10) any recitation of a measurable extent, no matter how wide, (e.g., "up to .075 mil", "between 10 and 25 microns", etc.).

Some examples of structurally defined elements* are:

(1) particular size or shape or other physical configuration (see above). (2) nonlinearity of a fiber or filament (e.g., crimped or coiled, etc.). (3) specific depth of impregnation of a fiber or filament.

(1) Note. As a special case, even though not structure, a coated or bonded fiber, filament, rod, strand is placed in subclasses 357+.

E. Subclasses 221+ provides for a web* or sheet* in which one component* or element* (e.g., fiber, filament, strand, particle, etc.) is structurally defined as claimed.

Some examples of defined structure are: (1) size or particular configuration or shape, either absolute or relative (e.g., weight* per unit area). (2) interengagement of strands* or filaments* which means mechanically arranging one strand* or filament* alternately over and under other strands*, perpendicularly or angularly related thereto. If all strands* in one direction are on only one side of the strands in the other direction, this is not interengagement. Looping, intertwining, interweaving, intertangling are also included in the term interengaged.

(3) a composite* web* or sheet*, at least one component* being porous or cellular. (4) a composite*, web* or sheet* having the outermost layer of adhesive characteristics so as to be adhered to another surface.

F Subclasses 411+ and 615+ provide for a composite* web* or sheet* which is characterized solely by the composition of the layers*.

G. Subclasses 539.5 and 540+ provide for stock-material* having a continuous phase of one material interengaged with a continuous phase of a different material, usually made by permeation or saturation. See the definitions and notes of these subclasses. In addition there are provided in subclasses 900-941 cross-reference art collections of product patents based on use or particular characteristics indicated in the titles and definitions thereof. These collections of disclosures are not exhaustive but are intended as aids to a search based on ultimate function or use, as a supplement to a search in this class, or as an indication of further related fields of search inside or outside this class.


The scope of this class is defined by the residual state thereof as set forth in above.

It must be clearly understood that all patents to stock material products have not been removed from all those classes which provide for such products on the basis of their ultimate function, See below for an exemplary listing of such classes.

As to composites (subclasses 411+ and 615+), the disclosures of this collection of art (i.e., adhered bodies defined in terms of their respective compositions or compounds) are subdivided generally on the basis of pairs of contiguous bodies (conveniently referred to as "layer"*). Thus, for instance, a laminate composed of layers* A, B, C, in that order, is visualized as comprising the pairs A-B and B-C, the laminated, A, B, C, D as comprising pairs A-B, B-C, and C-D-- and so on. This arrangement is conceived of as facilitating the search for any multi- layered product, particularly for patent examination purposes. Whereas a search for substance A joined to substance C by an intervening layer* of B, in a system based on paired layers*, may produce a disclosure of A-B in one document and of B-C in another, or may retrieve a disclosure of A-B-C in one document, it is thought that all such disclosures should be available to the examiner for his consideration, whether in a single document or a combination of documents. The utility of such as approach is apparent in the search for products including five, six, seven, or more layer* pairs or interfaces.

Additionally, it is believed that this concept of laminates

as consisting of pairs of layers* may be incorporated readily into a machine retrieval system. Having in mind the ubiquity of layer* interfaces in modern technology--appearing in both laminated and molded plastics, protective and decorative finishes, wood and paper products, metal stock--the technique of subdividing into layer* pairs all disclosures in the voluminous literature of interfacial bonding, is seen to offer an effectual starting point for the development of a schedule of descriptors or a dictionary of terms for mechanical search.

It is an essential part of the considerations on which this paired-layer* schedule is based, that no weight is given to the alleged nature of any particular layer* as adherent or base. The disclosure of two particular layers* in mutual contact will be available for the searcher's consideration regardless of whether either, both, or neither is taught as being adhesive, bonding material, glue, impregnant, etc.


The general procedure for placement of a patent in a class is set forth on in the Manual of Classification (note the exception set forth in the last paragraph of this section). Briefly, the basic principles which determine placement of the original copy of a patent in this class are:

A. Only claimed subject matter is relied upon, when comparing coordinate "first-line indent" subclasses (e.g., subclasses 98 and 221), for placement of a patent.

B. In subclass 1 through 223, 292.1 - 301.4, and 304.4 - 410, 1. the original copy of said patent will be placed in the first-occurring "first-line indent" subclass (of this class) which provides for the claimed subject matter: However, where said "first-line indent" subclass has a further indented subclass which specifically provides for either the claimed or disclosed more specific subject matter, the "original" copy will be placed in said further indented subclass;

2. as between coordinate subclasses (e.g., subclasses 156 and 174) which are indented under a "first-line indent" subclass, the original copy of a patent will be placed in the first-occurring of the coordinate subclasses which provides for (a) the claimed subject matter, or (b) the disclosed subject matter (in the absence of a claim drawn to the more specific subject matter as provided for in such coordinate subclasses);

3. further, the original copy of a patent will be placed in an indented subclass where the unclaimed but disclosed more specific subject matter is provided for in said indented subclass.

C. In the subclasses relating to specified physical dimension (e.g., 215+, 220, 332+, etc.), a range thereof qualifies even though the work "absolute" may be used.

Further, in a subclass which specifies the upper limit of a dimension, for example, subclass 334, in which the upper limit is specified as 5 mils (or equivalent), a range which transcends this limit is excluded therefrom and is placed in the appropriate higher subclass. Thus, for example, a composite* sheet* in which the coated layer* is recited as being in the range of 3 mils to 7 mils, is excluded from subclass 334 and is placed in subclass 332, unless reason exists for placement in subclass 339.

D. In subclasses 544+, the original is placed strictly on the basis of the claims. Where an indented subclass is provided, the original is placed in the indented subclass only when all of the claims have the limitations of that indented subclass.

E. The procedure for placement of a patent directed to a nonstructural laminate or composite will be that procedure now employed in the classification of classes of chemistry and is set forth under the definitions of subclasses 411 and 615 of this class (428). Procedures applicable to patent placement in the experimental "Markush"-type subclasses 643, 656, 661, 664, 669, 671, and 678 are given in the definition of subclass 643.

Once placement of the original copy of a patent has been determined, a cross-reference copy of the patent is mandatory in every subclass in this class or any other which provides for other claimed subject matter, except in instances where the subclass which would normally receive such cross-reference copy contains a search class note to the subclass in which the original copy has been placed, in which case only exemplary cross-references are provided. Cross-reference copies may be placed in any subclass where the disclosed subject matter is considered to render the document as useful reference.

When the original of the patent is placed in the article* or structural subclasses, a cross-reference copy will be placed in subclass 411, or subclasses 615+, where the disclosed subject matter is considered to render the document as useful reference. Similarly, when the original copy of a patent is placed in subclasses 323+, a cross-reference thereof will be placed in a superior subclass where the disclosure warrants.


Completed articles* of manufacture, except for those expressly provided for in the schedule, are excluded from this class. However, in many cases the claims of a patent are directed only to "nominal" articles, that is, articles claimed only in terms of the composition or stock-material* from which they are made. It is the present policy of the Patent and Trademark Office to classify article patents, wherein the claims mention the article by name only and define it only in terms of the composition or material of which it is composed, in the appropriate composition or material class. The collection of these patents and reclassification thereof into the composition or material classes is under way, and as a corollary thereto, patents claiming a composition or material for an art use heretofore classified in the art classes are also being transferred to the appropriate composition or material class. For articles* provided for in other classes, attention is directed to the "Index to Classification", and to LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES, below.


The first appearing term, i.e., to the left of the colon, is the name used in the document and the term to the right of the colon is the corresponding name employed in the subclass titles of the schedule. The list provides an index to the schedule for laminates which are identified by trade names, trade marks and other terminology not employed in the schedule. The symbols # and 0 indicate that the term, on the right in the glossary, is an abbreviated form of that found in the subclass titles.

# = aldehyde or keytone condensation product

0 = addition polymer from unsaturated monomers.


"A" Stage: = aldehyde[supscrpt]#[end supscrpt] (phenolic); ABS, acrylonitrile-butadiene-stryrene:= unsaturated deg. (polyene) Acrylate, acrylic: = unsaturated deg. Airplane fabric = cloth*[supscrpt] ; [end supscrpt]Alkyd: = polyester[supscrpt] ; [end supscrpt]Animal fiber or hair: = polyamide[supscrpt] ; [end supscrpt]Animal glue: = polyamide ; Artificial silk: = cellulosic (regenerated or modified) ; Asbestos: = silicon containing; see definition ; Asphaltic: = bituminous


"B" Stage: = aldehyde[supscrpt]#[end supscrpt] (phenolic) ; "Bakelite": = aldehyde[supscrpt]#[end supscrpt] (phenolic) ; Balata: = natural rubber ; Balsam: = natural gum ; "Beetle", "Beetleware": = aldehyde[supscrpt]# ; [end supscrpt]Birdlime: = natural gum ; Buna S: = unsaturated deg. Butadiene-styrene: = unsaturated deg. (&pgr;&ogr;&lgr;ψϵ&ngr;ϵ)


Canadian Balsam: = natural gum; Caoutchouc: - natural rubber; Casein: polyamide ; Carbon Particles: = inorganic ;

"C" Stage: = aldehyde[supscrpt]#[end supscrpt] (phenolic) ; "Cellopane": cellulosic (modified) ;"Celluloid": = cellulosic (modified) ; Cement: = silicon containing ; Ceramic: = silicon containing ; Chloroprene: = unsaturated deg. (polyene) ; Clay: = silicon containing ; Cotten seed pitch: = bituminous or tarry residue. ; Coumarone, coumarone-indene: = unsaturated deg. (&eegr;ϵ&tgr;ϵρ&ogr;χψχ&lgr;ιχ) ; &KHgr;ρϵ&ogr;σ&ogr;&tgr;ϵ: = bituminous D

"Dacron": = polyester ; Dextran: = carbohydrate ; Dextrin: = carbohydrate ; Dope (airplane): = cellulosic, (modified) ; "Durez": = aldehyde[supscrpt]# ; [end supscrpt]"Dynel": = unsaturated deg. (&eegr;α&lgr;ιδϵ)


Enamel (not otherwise specified) - pigment varnish: = natural oil or gum ; Enamel, porcelain: = silicon containing ; Enamel, synthetic: = see under the appropriate synthetic resin ; "Ethoxylene": = epoxy ether


"Factice": = natural oil (modified) ; Fiber (animal): = polyamide ; Fiber (vegetable): = cellulosic ; Fish glue: = polyamide ; "Kel-F": = fluorinated addition polymer ; Fish paper: = polyamide ; Fleece: = nap surface ; Flour paste: = polyamide unless specified as starch, which see ; "Formica": = aldehyde ; Friction tape: = bituminous or tarry residue ; FR-S: = unsaturated deg. (polyene) ; Furfural: = aldehyde ; Fur: = polyamide ;


Gelatin: = polyamide ; "Geon": = unsaturated deg. (halide) ; Glass: = silicon containing; see definition ; Glass, water (i.e., waterglass): = silicon containing ; Giladen (protein): = polyamide ; Glue: = polyamide ; Glue, Fish or Animal: = polyamide ; Glue, Synthetic: = usually aldehyde ; "Glyptal": = polyester ; Goldbeaters skin: = animal membrane ; Graphite: = inorganic ; GR-S: = unsaturated deg. (polyene) ; Gum plastic, ABS: = unsaturated deg. (polyene) ; Gutta percha: = natural rubber ; Gypsum: = calcium sulfate

Hair: = polyamide ; Haloprene: = unsaturated deg. (polyene) "Hetron": Hexamethylenetetramine as a source of formaldehyde: = aldehyde[supscrpt]#[end supscrpt]

Ivory: = polyamide

"Kodel": = polyester ; "Koroseal": = unsaturated deg. ; "Kynar": = fluorinated addition polymer Latex: = natural rubber ; Latex paint: = unsaturated deg. (either ester or polyene) ; "Leatheroid" (paper-rubber-sandarac): natural rubber; Lecithin: = waxy ; #aldehyde or ketone condensation product 0 addition polymer from unsaturated monomers. ; "Lexan": = polycarbonate ; Linoleum: = cork with natural oil, gum or rosin ; "Lucite": = unsaturated deg. (ester) ; Lycopodium: = natural oil or gum


Maleic acid or anhydride (used as a reactant): = unsaturated (anhydride is heterocyclic) ; Maleic acid ester (from polyhydric alcohol): = polyester (crosslinked); Maleic acid ester (from monohydric alcohol): = unsaturated deg. (ester)# ; Melamine: = aldehyde; Mica: = silicon containing; Modacrylic: = unsaturated (halide); "Mylar": = polyester; Neoprene: = unsaturated deg. (polyene)


"Neothane": = poly(amido-ester); Nitro cellulose: = cellulosic (ester or modified); Nylon: = polyamide; Oil cloth: = see structural area (cross joined strands)

"Orlon": = a cyrylic (unsaturated deg. )


Paper: = a water laid web or interfelted natural celluloses fibers; Phenolic(s): = aldehyde; Pitch: = bituminous; "Plexiglas": = unsaturated deg. (ester); "Pliofilm": = natural rubber; "Plioflex": = unsaturated deg. (polyene); Polyamine: = aldehyde[supscrpt]#[end supscrpt] (unless otherwise specified); Polyethylene: = unsaturated deg. ; Polypropylene: = unsaturated deg. ; Polyurethane: = see urethane; Porcelain: = silicon containing; Porcelain enamel: = see enamel, porcelain; Portland cement: = silicon containing; Protein: = polyamide; PVA (Polyvinyl acetate): deg. =unsaturated (ester) ; "Pyrex": = glass; Pyroxilin: = cellulosic (modified)

Quartz: = silicon containing


Rayon: = cellulosic (regenerated) (in strand or fiber form); Refractory: = see definition above; Rubber, pore: = natural rubber; Rubber, synthetic: = unsaturated deg. polyene; Rubber, synthetic, sulfide: = polythioether

S SBR: = unsaturated deg. (polyene); Sand: = silicon containing ; Sandarac: = natural gum; "Saran": = unsaturated deg. (halide) ; Silk: = polyamide; Soya bean oil: = polyamide; Spandex: = poly(amido-ester); Starch: =

carbohydrate ; Stone: = silicon containing ; Stone Wood: = cellulosic (wood) ; Suede: = Pile or nap surface ; Synthetic glue: = usually aldehyde[supscrpt]#[end supscrpt] ; Synthetic rubber: = unsaturated deg. polyene ; Synthetic rubber: sulfide: = polythioether

Talc: = silicon containing ; "Telflon": = fluorinated addition polymer ; "Terylene": = polyester ; "Thiokol": = polythioether ;

Urethane: = poly(amido ester)


Varnish: = natural oil or gum, lac ; Varnish, phenolic: aldehyde[supscrpt]#[end supscrpt] ; Varnish, synthetic: = aldehyde or cellulosic (as disclosed) ; Vegetable ivory: = cellulosic ; Vinyl: = unsaturated deg. ; Vinyon: = unsaturated deg. (halide) ; Viscose: = cellulosic (modified) ; Vitreous: glassy, silicon containing ; Vulcanized fiber: = cellulosic (modified)


Water glass: = silicon containing; Water soluble thermosetting resin: = aldehyde[supscrpt]#; [end supscrpt]Wheat paste: = polyamide, unless specified as starch (which see); Wood: = cellulosic; Wool: = polyamide


Zein: = polyamide; Zylonite (celluloid): = cellulosic; "Zytel" (nylon): = polyamide


The organization of this section is as follows: A. INTERMEDIATE ARTICLES* - 1. Packages, 2. Blanks, etc.


C. ARTICLES* AND STOCK-MATERIALS* - 1. Life-science related; 2. Textiles and related materials (a. Fibers, strands, rods, etc.; b. Interengaged fibers or strands; c. Belts, etc.; d. Associated fabrics; e. Textiles and their manufacture in general) 3. Static objects and materials (a. Receptacles, chambers, etc., b. Other hollow subject matter, c. Structures related to radiant or wave energy, d. Other structures and static objects); 4. Electric and magnetic elements, 5. Mechanical elements (a. Joints, b. Cutting, separating and related elements, c. Friction elements, d. Other machine elements); 6. Coating and coated products, 7. Assembling and/or shaping, 8. Other manufacturing and treating, 9. Miscellaneous devices


In section II, the symbol # is used at the end of the definition to designate a class or part of a class which provides for certain stock-material*. Here follows the number and full title of classes which have been discovered as having a defined relationship with this class, as explained below in Subsection INTERMEDIATE-ARTICLES*, and in the subclass definitions:


1. Packages, Class 206, provides, in general, for mercantile units in which a plurality of articles* are held together by an extraneous element which is discarded before the article is used. A plurality of articles which are not yet detached from each other, being held together by material intrinsic to the material of which the articles are made, generally is classified in this class (428); however, Class 59, subclass 77 provides for a series of staple blanks which are partially shaped and integrally connected. Class 229, subclass 75 provides for a plurality of envelope blanks integrally connected in strip form. A package designed to be used or disposed of in toto is generally classified herein; see subclasses 2 and 576. See also the references to Class 252 in part B, below.

Stock material in roll or coil form, or wound in the form of a coil, will be classified in Class 428; however, any further limitations as to the roll, or coil or package, as for example, an overlapping roll edge, an edge or convolution taped or secured to an under layer*, or a detail as to the mandrel, etc., is considered to be significant structure for the roll and placement in Class 206, subclasses 389+ is indicated.

A separate and distinct interliner or sheet* wound into the convolutions and which is not ordinarily part of the stock material is considered to be significant roll structure for Class 206. A liner sheet adhered to a portion of a composite* sheet* or web* and rolled together therewith and removable is considered to be part of the stock material and proper for Class 428.

Generally, a product or stock material falling within the definition of this class (428) and further modified by the bare recital that such product or material (a) is in the form of a roll, reel, drum, coil, stack, pile, bale, etc., or (b) is within a container or in the form of a package is classified in this class (428).

For purposes of classification in Class 428, the coil, packaged or wound form is disregarded and placement is on the basis of the web*, sheet*, or other form of product or stock material. See Class 206, subclasses 45.31+ for a pouch adapted to receive an identification card (unless of the paper envelope

type, see Class 229, Paper Receptacles).

In regard to wall structure of Class 206-type receptacles, see part C,3, a, below.

A wound strand package is in Class 242, subclasses 159+, which also has a search note setting out its line with Class 206.

An intermediate-article* so shaped as to be suitable for handling is in this class (428); however, a claim to a pile or stack of such articles, when it does not form a work-piece* which is subsequently worked as a unit, is in Class 214, subclass 10.5.

2. Blanks, etc.

A claim, even though stated to be a "blank" which describes or is readable on the structure of a completed article* is classified with the article*, for such a claim is either generic to both the blank and the article, and, therefore, considered to be best classified with the completed article, or is to a subcombination which is best classifiable within an appropriate subcombination class, or, if none, in the article class.

Class 2, subclass 143 provides for blanks which are to be used in making collars for garments.

Class 10, subclasses 11+ provide for bolt blanks, and subclass 62 provides for spike blanks.

Class 24, subclasses 20+ provide for a package tie which is a metal band which is to be bent, cut, or formed up to make a connection.

Class 36, subclasses 47+ provide for blanks used in the production of shoe uppers.

Class 59, subclasses 8, 12 and 35 provide for chain blanks, subclass 62 provides for horseshoe blanks, and subclass 77 provides for staple blanks which are partially shaped and integrally connected. Class 63, subclasses 15+ provide for a finger-ring blank which already is a ring.

Class 76, subclasses 101.1+ provide for a metal tool or implement blank.

Class 101, subclasses 404.1+ provide for blanks for printing plates and printing members.

Class 138 provides for tube and ring blanks which are tubes which can hold fluid.

Class 150, subclasses 127+ provides for blanks used in making


Class 220, subclasses 62+ provides for a can or other metallic receptacle blank.

Class 229, Envelopes, Wrappers, and Paperboard Boxes, subclasses 100+ for a blank for forming a paperboard box.

Class 248, subclass 248 provides for a blank from which a sheet-material supporting bracket can be made.

B. Compounds and Compositions

A patent claiming a single layer*, film, filament*, or fiber*, or a mass*, with a limitation to the material(s) of which it is comprised, but with no recitation of significant structure, will be placed in the appropriate compound or composition class. The following are considered to be significant structure:

1. An external configuration which is not planar or cylindrical, e.g., aperture, fold, varying thickness, etc. 2. The recitation of a numerical dimension or designation of metal as a foil or leaf

3. A product composed of at least three layers*.

4. A coated strand, wire, fiber, filament, rod or strand.

5. An interconnected void structure.

6. Porosity in a nonparticulate metal.

The following are not considered to be significant structure:

1. Random distribution of elements* such as fillers or reinforcements (e.g., fibers*) within a product or randomly disposed pores or cells (i.e., no particular pattern or arrangement) in a porous, cellular or foamed product, wherein the overall structure is neither limited nor influenced by these elements*, even though the elements* or pores themselves may have structural limitations.

2. Internal characteristics, such as crystalline form, molecular orientations, etc., when such characteristics have no relation to the shape of the product.

3. The presence of the composition as a coating on an unnamed substrate.

A product described by a functional or chemical name only (e.g., table, wood, etc.) is not considered to have significant structure; however, limitations such as plywood (indicating layers*), tables with legs, etc., are considered to define structural limitations.

Also, a patent for a product where the presence of structure (e.g., cellular) or the degree thereof is a mere manifestation of the material or composition will likewise be placed in the appropriate material or composition class. Further, a product defined in terms of its properties (e.g., tensile strength, elongation) is not considered a "structurally defined" product, as provided for in this class. In regard to a patent which has a claim to a product which is classifiable in this class (428), subclasses 411+, but which recites no significant structural limitations, and a claim to a coating material compound or composition which is included in at least a part of the claimed product, and claim to a significant process of coating, the patent is classified according to the coating material.

The rules for determining Class placement of the Original Reference (OR) for claimed chemical compositions are set forth in the Class Definition of Class 252 in the section LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS, subsection COMPOSITION CLASS SUPERIORITY, which includes a hierarchical ORDER OF SUPERIORITY FOR COMPOSITION CLASSES.

The enumeration of classes below, in general, follows the priority list of Class 252 and covers some additional classes. Thus, this enumeration is not authoritative insofar as priority of classes is concerned. The definitions of these classes should be studied to determine the proper placement of patents therein.

Class 504, subclasses 116+ provide for plant growth regulating compositions and subclasses 101+ provide for a fertilizer containing an insecticide, fungicide, or deodorant.

Class 424 provides for drug, bio-affecting and body-treating compositions. Subclasses 1.21, 1.25, 1.29+, and 400+ provide for some articles* and stock-materials* which contain a composition of that class. A stock-material* suitable for this class (428), containing a Class 424 composition to preserve the stock material itself from biological attack, is in this class (428). Residual methods for preserving, disinfecting or sterilizing stock-materials are in Class 422.

Class 426 provides for food, beverages and other edible compositions, and certain edible articles* and stock-materials*.

Class 71, provides for fertilizers.

Class 208, subclasses 14+ provide for compositions made up exclusively of mineral oil components.

Class 585, subclasses 1+ provides for compositions made up

exclusively of hydrocarbons or a hydrocarbon with a preservative, etc.

Class 149 provides for explosive and thermic compositions and charges, subclasses 2+ providing for one in which at least one ingredient has a particular shape or structure, and subclasses 14+ for one having at least two separate and distinct superimposed or contiguous layers or forms of different components or of components having different properties. The layers must be in direct contact and not be separated by a space or by a nonexplosive or nonthermic body.

Class 508, subclasses 100+ provide for shaped lubricants and massive rigid solid bodies, including bearings, which carry a fluent lubricant, and subclasses 110+ provide for lubricant compositions generally. Class 44 provides for fuel compositions and some combustible fuel articles* and stock-materials*.

Class 148, subclasses 240+ and 22+ provide for certain compositions for treating solid metal, and subclass 400.1 for certain stock-materials* and compositions produced by a process of that class (148). See the references to this class in parts 4 and 6, below.

Class 75, subclasses 228+ provide for consolidated metal powder compositions, in subclasses 251+ for loose metal powder compositions, and in subclasses 95, 256 and 257 for certain additives for molten metal.

This class (428), subclass 576 provides for a shaped article* to be melted in a metallurgical furnace.

Class 252, in subclasses other than those listed above or below, provides for special utility compositions. In most cases, Class 252 provides for compositions having a random mixture of components, while stock-materials* are classified in this or another stock-material class. However, it is noted that some subclasses in Class 252 provide for more than mere compositions; for example, subclass 176 provides for packages and heterogeneous arrangements of water-softening and related-function compositions.

Class 510 provides for cleaning compositions and auxiliary or perfecting compositions therefor, while certain subclasses therein, such as subclasses 404, 438+, etc., provide for packages or heterogeneous arrangements, while subclasses 445+, etc., provide for solid, shaped macroscopic articles or structures.

Class 106 provides for a composition which is in fluent or solid noncoherent form which is adapted for coating or impregnating and for change to a less fluent form, or solid coherent form, by setting (e.g., concrete, plastic, etc.), by chemical reaction, by removal of solvent, by solidification

from a molten state, etc. In a patent directed to a filler or pigment for a coating composition, the recitation of size or structure of the constituent* particles or fibers is not sufficient to exclude said patent from Class 106. See especially subclasses 36, 117, 235, 241, 251, 253+, 266, 272, 275, 276, 280, 281+, 288+, 636, 784, and 816.

Class 51 provides for abrading composition or some stock material; see especially subclasses 294, 295, and 297 for other abrasive stock material, or for a method of making abrasive material such as "sandpaper."

Class 451 provides for abrading materials in usable form, as a "tool" under that class definition. For example, subclasses 526+ provide for "sandpaper."

Class 260, subclasses 2+ and 520 Classes provide for a synthetic resin or Natural Rubbers (spinnable, film-forming, etc.), and Class 260, subclasses 709+ provide for a vulcanizable natural gum (e.g., rubber).

Under certain circumstances, the relation between Class 260, 520 Classes and Class 428 shifts between combination and subcombination. For example, the subcombination of a resin composition is in Class 260 and 520 Classes; a layered product structurally defined and containing the resin composition as a layer is now a combination which is classified in Class 428. However, the combination of the layered product and a resin, when the layered product is used as filler for the resin is again classified in Class 260 and 520 Classes as a resin composition. Class 252, subclasses 299.01+, 625+, 363.5, 367.1, 372+, 378, 182.11+, and 183.11+ provide for compositions on a nonfunctional basis.

Class 423 provides for inorganic compounds, and in subclasses 265+ provides for compositions having an inorganic compound and an agent which improves the general utility of the compound.

Class 430, Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition, or Product Thereof, appropriate subclasses for stock material and products which are radiation sensitive and limited to use in imagery and a finished imaged article chemically defined. A claim to a finished picture or photograph is classified in Class 428.

Class 520 provides for synthetic resins, natural rubbers, compositions and modifications thereof.

C. Articles* and Stock-materials*

1. Life-sciences related materials.

Classes 3, 47, 433, and 449 take articles*, but not stock-materials*. A cut, natural plant, treated to prolong

the characteristics of life, is in class 47, and that class (47) provides for the combination of a receptacle and a cut plant either treated or with means to prolong the characteristics of life.

Class 128 is the locus for a patent directed to a stock-material* product when (1) solely disclosed to be worn by, or attached to, the body (e.g., sanitary napkin, diaper, etc.) and to be a receptor for a body discharge (2) solely disclosed as a shield or protective device to be worn on, or attached to, a body member or part (e.g., bandage, dressing, etc.) and having a therapeutic use or (3) a patent to a stock-material* product whose disclosure includes a Class 128 utility as set out above or in the class definition thereof, and a general utility for Class 428, but in which one claim is specific to the Class 128 disclosed use.

2. Textiles and related materials

Certain textile manufacturing classes provide for their own products, and Classes 2, 5 and 245 provide for products only, while some other textile products are provided for in this class.

a. Fibers, strands, rods, etc.. Class 19, subclasses 144+ provide for a process of, or means for, assembling fibers* together into a lap, sliver or web*, with some other material. Stock-material* products of a Class 19 process are classified in this class (428).

Class 52, subclasses 720.1+ provide for a miscellaneous article* which is an elongated, rigid structure. See also the reference to Class 52 in part 3d, below.

Class 57, subclasses 200+ provide for a stock-material* strand* consisting of, or comprising, a claimed twisted or twined constituent*; or for a stock-material* product (e.g., web*, sheet*, etc.) distinguished only by such twisted or twined strands* (as claimed) employed in the manufacture thereof, or a stock-material* product comprising coated or impregnated strands* in which the coating or impregnation took place prior to assembly of said strands* to form the product, no matter how the twist was made, whether by a Class 57 process or apparatus or otherwise.

The "twist" or its equivalent term is applicable either to plural fibers* or filaments* which are twisted about each other, or to a monofilament which is turned or twisted about its longitudinal axis. A crimped fiber is classifiable in Class 428, the crimp being out of the plane of the fiber.

This class (428) does not exclude a yarn, strand*, or other constituent* unless the claim recites at least a "twist" or its equivalent; or a property due to, or resulting from, twisting a fiber* or filament*. There are certain terms which have been accepted as denoting a twisting fiber* or

filament*, and, if used in a claim, classification in Class 57 is indicated, provided all other requirements therefor are met. Some of these terms are:

i. plying, doubling, twining, twisting (all such terms are considered to be synonymous) and indicate turning about the longitudinal axes of the fiber* filament or yarn or bundles of yarns;

ii. filament looped upon itself;

iii. turns of twist per inch;

iv. false twist;

v. twist to treat, followed by untwisting;

vi. spun staple fiber yarn e.g., wool, cotton, etc.; vii. "Z" or "S" twists or piles;

viii. roving.

In the event of a disclosure which includes (1) "twisted" strands, fibers, filaments for Class 57, and (2) nontwisted elements proper for Class 428, the following guidelines are to be followed in accordance with the claims:

1. A claim generic to both modifications will be classified in Class 428 as an original with a cross-reference, if needed, to Class 57.

2. A claim specific to either the twisted or nontwisted fibers will be classified in Class 428 or Class 57, respectively, with a proper cross-reference to the other class as needed.

3. A claim to the twisted Class 57 modification and a claim to the nontwisted product will be classified as an original in Class 428 with the proper cross-referencing.

Class 84, subclasses 199 and 297+ provide for strings for musical instruments.

Class 256, subclasses 6+ provide for barbed-strand fence stock-material*, and in subclass 46 for analogous nonbarbed stock-material*.

Class 464, Rotary Shafts, Gudgeons, Housings, and Flexible Couplings for Rotary Shafts, subclasses 51+ provides for flexible shafting; and subclasses 179+ provides for rigid shafting.

b. Interengaged fibers or strands

Class 59, subclasses 78+ provide for a chain formed of linked elements. Class 66, subclasses 69+ provide for a knitted article or stock-material*, and especially subclasses 190+ for stock-material* including knitted material with nonknitted material held in its loops.

Class 87, subclasses 1 through 13, provide for (1) stock-material* which consists of, or includes, a braid, net, or lace component, or (2) a product resulting from an operation(s) within the scope of that class (87), which product is either coated or combined with a material which is the product of an operation beyond the scope of Class 87 (e.g., lamination, etc.).

Class 131, subclasses 321+ provide for stock-material* specified as being a filter and of indeterminate shape (e.g., mass), or approximating the shape (e.g., coil, tube, cylinder, rod*, etc.), of the article or appliance with which it is intended to be used, requiring no further treatment than tearing or cutting to proper size* stock-material* of any other shape, recited so that some shape modification is required, is classified in Class 428.

Class 139, subclasses 383+ provide for a single or plural layer* woven stock-material* product made only by a Class 139 process and no other operation. A patent directed to a woven product possessing deformed, coated or impregnated strands will be placed in Class 139 where the sole disclosure is that a coating, impregnation or deformation of the constituent strands took place prior to the weaving.

Two layers woven together are classified in Class 139. Two woven layers adhered together are classified in Class 428, one layer of woven material next to a layer of nonwoven material is classified in Class 428.

Class 162 provides for a nonstructural (1) single-layer* waterlaid fibrous product, (2) plural-layer* product including a layer* of fibers* applied to a second layer* by a process provided for in that class (162), or (3) paper homogeneously impregnated throughout, even after the web* is formed, and note particularly subclasses 141-181.1+, which include any nonstructural fiber* (or fiber-containing) product (e.g., particular blend of fibers*), whether waterlaid or not. Also, see notes in Class 162, referring to Class 428, e.g., Class 162, subclasses 141 and 150 for examples of structural fibers. This class (428), subclass 596, provides for metallic wire cloth formed by welding plural all-metal wires at their points of intersection; in subclass 605 for a mass of metal fibers, including plural layers of wire cloths joined by mechanical compression and sinter bonded into a fibrous mass, and in subclass 608 for a mass which includes metal wires, strands or strand portions mechanically intertangled, interwoven or interlooped, coated with a metal or a layer of metal or nonmetal fibers located between two metal layers.

Class 245 provides for a wire fabric* which is the product of a bending or analogous wire-working operation.

Class 256, subclass 5 provides for barbed-fence fabric*, and in subclass 45 for analogous nonbarbed material.

Classes 289, subclass 1.2 provides for an interlacement (knot) of portions of one or more elongated flexible elements (e.g., strand, rope) forming a tie or fastening and including any bend or hitch.

c. Belts, etc.

Class 198, appropriate subclasses provide for an endless conveyor belt or a stock material* disclosed solely for use as a conveyor belt. Class 474, appropriate subclasses provide for an endless power transmission belt or a stock material* disclosed solely for use as a power-transmission belt.

Class 162, subclasses 348+ provide for a flexible endless band-type paper-making mold of the Fourdrinier variety.

Class 400, subclasses 237+ provides for an inked typewriter ribbon.

d. Associated fabrics

Class 2 provides for a stock-material* product of that class, and especially subclasses 244 and 274, respectively, for an apparel trimming or binding, and 260 for coated stays or stiffeners.

Class 5, subclass 500 provides for a stock-material* product solely disclosed for use as an underpad or cover pad for a mattress, and which protects the mattress by receiving discharges of the body, for example, infants or hospital patients. Those cover pads are usually made of absorbent material.

Class 112, subclasses 400+ provides for sewn stock-material*, except for sewn stock-material* which includes a discrete mechanical fastener(s), a coating, or an adhesive bond, for which see subclasses 102+ of this class (428).

e. Textiles and manufacture thereof in general

Class 8 provides for a process of (1) dyeing or bleaching stock-material*; (2) treating hides, skins, feathers, or animal tissue with chemicals or fluids; (3) improving the felting properties of fibers*; (4) treating textile* fabrics* or fibers with fluids, with or without chemical modification of the treated material; or (5) a product resulting from any of the processes above, where not specifically provided for elsewhere. Structured stock is classified in Class 428, Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles, or other

appropriate class.

Class 26 provides for mechanical, nonliquid treatment of textile* fabrics* (e.g., napping), subsequent to fabrication, which is not provided for elsewhere. Stock-material* products of a Class 26 process are provided for in this class (428).

Class 28, subclasses 72+ provide for a mechanical textile* process not elsewhere provided for, a combination of such a process with another textile* operation or with a nontextile* operation provided for in some other textile* class with a nontextile* operation where such combination is not specifically provided for in the other textile* class. Stock-material* products of a Class 28 process are provided for in this class (428). Class 140 provides for processes of wire-working, e.g., uniting, shaping or deforming, but generally not for the products thereof. For the line between Class 140 and the other textile classes, see the main class definition of Class 140.

3. Static objects and materials.

a. Receptacles, chambers, etc. Articles* in the form of receptacles or chambers are provided for in a number of classes and portions of classes, the most important of which are listed below. Those which also provide for sheet* or web* material, claimed in terms of significant wall structure, are indicated by the symbol "#". Significant wall structure includes seam structure (not merely the composition of the seam and adjacent portions), spaced wall components, etc. Also significant for placement in the classes marked "#" is specified wall structure in relation to the container (e.g., inside or outside). Thus, a coated or laminated wall in which the composition of a layer is recited as being on the inside (or outside) of a container is considered to be significant wall structure and placement in classes marked "#" is indicated.

See reference to Class 138 in this section for examples of wall structure which would also be considered to be significant for placement in such classes, and for example which would not be so considered.

Class 123 provides for certain chambers in an internal combustion engine.

Class 126, subclasses 19+ provide for ovens.

Class 164, subclasses 349+ provide for sand molds, and subclass 374 for a flask section to be used in a metal-casting operation.

Class 206 provides for a special receptacle.

Class 215 provides for bottles and jars.

Class 217 provides for wooden receptacles.

Class 220 provides for receptacles in general, and for metallic receptacles in particular. See subclasses 23.9, 62.21, 574.3, 495.01+, and 908.1+ for a receptacle having a liner. Class 229 provides for paper receptacles. See especially subclass 71 for a paper-like display envelope for receiving an identification card, and other appropriate subclasses for receptacle structure as provided for therein; a coated wall structure, where the coating is specifically defined to be either on the inside or outside of the bag or receptacle will be considered receptacle structure and will indicate placement in Class 229. This coating may be for the purpose of acting as a vapor barrier, waterproofing layer, or antislide means, etc., and is especially related to the contents of the bag or receptacle.

Class 249 provides for articles* which are static molds.

Class 266, subclass 39 provides for articles* which are receptacles for treating molten metal.

Class 432, subclass 247 provides for an article* which is a heating or heat-retaining chamber.

b. Other hollow subject matter.

Class 89 provides generically for an article* which is a gun, shield or gun mount.

Class 138 provides for an article* which is a tube and for tubular stock-material* in which the claims include a limitation regarding wall structure. A claim which recites a particular composition as being the inside or outside wall of a tube is considered to be significant wall structure and placement in Class 138 is indicated. However, a claim which recites a tube or conduit having two or more layers* and then recites the compositions of the layers*, but does not specify which layer is inside or outside, is not considered to include significant wall structure and will be placed in Class 428. Examples of significantly recited coated wall structure for classification are:

1. A tube having a wall comprising a layer of metal and on the outer (or inner) surface thereof a layer of polypropy lens.

2. A tube having a laminated wall of three layers, in order from the inside to the outside, comprising polyethylene, epoxy, and polypropylene.

Examples of coated or laminated wall structure which are not significantly claimed and which indicate classification in Class 428.

1. A tube having a wall structure comprising a layer of metal and a layer of polypropylene. 2. A tube having a laminated wall of three layers comprising, in order, polyethylene, epoxy, and polypropylene.

Class 239, subclasses 548+ provide for a unitary plural-outlet means, and subclass 589 for a rigid fluid-confining distributor for ejection of fluents and slurries by slinging, sloshing, centrifugally throwing, etc., such material in the form of fog, mist droplets, etc.

384, Bearings, subclasses 276+ provide for an article* which is a bearing sleeve, or liner. See also the reference to Class 508, above.

Class 406, subclass 191 provides for conduits for fluid-current conveying.

c. Structures related to radiant or wave energy

Class 181, subclasses 33+ provide for an article* or a stock-material* with particular claimed structure (either internal or external) for the purpose of deadening, attenuating, or amplifying sound.

Class 250, subclass 515.1 provides for an article* which is a radiation shield.

Class 274, subclasses 41+ provide for a stock-material* having significant structure disclosed for receiving records of sound or having such records formed therein or thereon.

Class 333 provides for an article* of use in an electrical wave transmission line or network.

Class 343 provides, especially in subclasses 741+, an article*, e.g., an antenna, used in radio-wave communications.

Class 359, subclasses 36+ provides for a liquid crystal device, per se, which controls light direction or intensity by (1) deforming or relatively displacing portions of, or changing the shape or size of an optically reflecting or transmitting medium, surface or interface, or (2) changing the composition, internal structure, or the physical or chemical properties of such a medium, surface or interface, and in subclasses 838+ for a mirror having claimed optically significant structure, e.g., concave, convex, polarizing, selectively absorbing, optically critical thickness, etc. A plural layer product, one layer of which merely acts as a support or base for a coating which affects the transmission of light therethrough, which one layer is uniformly opaque or transparent or translucent, is excluded from Class 359, and will be found in the appropriate subclasses of Class 428, see especially subclass 426. Class 369 provides for a record of information which is to be reconstructed dynamically by other than magnetic means. See, in particular, subclasses 272+. A disc with/without grooves which does not include recorded information is classified in Class 428, subclasses 64.1; and see especially subclass 908 for a collection of stock materials having an impression retention layer. Class 430 provides for a finished photograph which is chemically defined. See the note to Class 428 in the main class definition of Class 430.

Class 422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, appropriate subclasses for certain receptacles and chambers in which a chemical reaction takes place.

d. Other structures and static object. A patent to a rigid laminate or stock-material* merely defined as a building component, e.g., floor, wall, stile, etc., will be placed in Class 428.

Class 40, subclasses 39+ provide for a fluid-operated, rotatable-changeable exhibitor which may resemble a special occasion ornament for Class 428, and subclasses 7+ and 156 for a frame, as defined therein, with or without an identification card therein, and not having any specific printed indicia thereon; see also the reference to Class 283, below.

Class 49, subclasses 440+ provide for a channel guide of stock-material* with specific structure to facilitate securing it to a support, and subclasses 475+ for a closure seal or striker gasket of stock-material* provided with means for attachment to a support.

Class 52, provides for a product in the form of a web* or sheet* generally employed as a portion of a building structure and including (1) a stiffener or edging extending along a face thereof, or (2) means facilitating securement of the web or sheet to a support, e.g., a flange at the edge of a panel for receiving a nail, or fastener apertures at the edge of a panel. Class 52 also provides for: a composite panel formed of separate sheets which are secured together by a mechanical fastener; a composite panel having spaced facing sheets with inturned, opposed flanges that form an edge of the panel; and a panel which interfits with a support such as a frame or shaft. See, particularly, subclasses 98+ for a fracturable building component, subclass 105 for a component with indicia, subclass 177 for a component having a specified wear or friction surface, subclasses 311.1+ for an ornamental or decorative component, subclasses 393+ for a yieldable component, subclasses 474+ for a panel held by a preassembled or prepositioned frame or shaft, subclasses 596+ for a stone-like module, subclass 631 for a bent component, subclasses 633+ for an openwork component, subclasses 656 for a frame, per se, subclasses 716.1+ for an in situ attached-type channel or trim member, and subclasses 782.1+

for a composite laminate with a disparate edging or an imperforate face.

Class 109 provides for safes and components thereof, bank protection and related devices, and in subclass 495 provides for a shield or protector for preventing a projectile, or knife or sword, or bomb fragment from contacting a person or thing. This could be a portable device or one which attaches (i.e., has attaching means such as belts, straps, etc.) to a bomb for containing the fragments.

Class 160 provides for a panel structure for use in a flexible or portable closure or partition, especially in subclasses 385+ for fabric having a modified edge (e.g., loops) for attachment to an elongated support.

Class 180, subclass 68.6 provides for an article* which is a motor vehicle radiator protector.

Class 228, subclass 56 provides for a metal article* useful as filler material in a metal fusion bonding operation.

Class 238 provides for an article* which is a railroad rail. Class 248, subclass 248 provides for an article* which is a shelf support made from a single blank. The blank itself is classified in this class (428).

Class 283, subclasses 74+ provides for an identification card having printed matter thereon.

Class 404 provides for a road or pavement which has structure peculiar for pedestrian or vehicular traffic. A laminated or layered* product with no structure which peculiarly adapts it for use for vehicles or pedestrians, such as a crown, grading, contour, etc., is classifiable in Class 428.

Class 405, subclasses 276+ provide for metallic sheet piling.

Class 425, subclass 470 provides for a shaping or casting surface for nonmetal material.

Class 588, provides for the production of articles made with or from hazardous or toxic waste to contain the waste.

4. Electric and magnetic elements. The classes listed below, with the exception of those marked with the symbol "#", do not provide for electric or magnetic stock-materials*. The marked classes or portions of classes provide for stock-material* only when such material has a claimed internal or external structure which makes the material of utility only in a single class. In general, an electrode is either an article* for the classes listed, a stock-material* for this class (428), or a composition for a composition class, notably Class 75, or Class 252, subclasses 500+.

Class 136, subclasses 236+ provide for thermocouple junction stock-material*.

Class 148, subclasses 33+ provide for P-N junction stock-material* made by a process of that class.

Class 174 provides for stock-material* in the form of an electrical conductor with a covering of dielectric material wherein the conductor includes structure disclosed to be specially designed to conduct electricity, or the dielectric includes structure disclosed to be specifically designed to space the conductor from ground or from a device of otherwise different potential.

Class 191, subclass 22 provides for conductive articles* specifically designed to transmit electricity to vehicles. Class 200, subclasses 262+ provide for electric switch contact elements which go beyond stock-materials*, e.g., by having two spaced conductors, etc.

Class 204, subclasses 194+ for articles which are elements of an electrolytic apparatus.

Class 219, subclasses 145+ and 552+ provide for articles* which are electric heating elements.

Class 257, Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes), provides for electronic devices or components that are made up primarily of semiconductor materials which operate by the movement of charge carriers - electrons or holes - which undergo energy level changes within the material and can modify an electrical input to achieve rectification, amplification or switching action. A mere named combination of doped semiconductor materials where the sole use of the device is disclosed as an active solid state device results in classification in Class 257. Recitation of electrical contacts or leads is not necessary to classification in Class 257.

Class 310, subclasses 248+ provide for articles* which are electric generator or motor brushes.

Class 313, appropriate subclasses, especially subclass 326, provide for electrode structure for electric lamps and other discharge devices which are defined by their structure for in such devices. A mere recitation of a wire, rod, strip, cylinder, etc., is not considered to be structure for Class 313, nor is a recitation only of the electrode composition or of a base and/or coating. Nonmetallic* rods, strands, fibers, etc., which are structurally defined, but do not include structure for use as electrodes for lamps, are found in Class 428, subclasses 357+; note especially subclasses 375+ for coated rods, strands, fibers, etc. A plurality of electrodes, unless specifically related structurally to each other or to other structure, for use in a lamp or discharge device will be found in Class 428, appropriate subclasses.

Class 317 provides for articles* of use in electrical applications not provided for elsewhere.

Class 318 provides for articles* used in electric-motive power systems.

Class 335, subclasses 296+ provide for a magnet or magnetic material (including structure, e.g., lamination of work at least two magnetic layers disclosed for use as a source of magnetic flux for performing external work).

Class 336, subclasses 233+ provide for a core or magnetic body comprising superimposed bundles or layers of magnetic material in the form of sheets, rods, or wires, and for single sheets, punchings, rods, or wire which have such configuration that they have no utility except in building up of a core or coil for use in an inductor device within the class definition (e.g., transformer, etc.).

Class 337, subclass 379 provides for an article* which is a bimetallic element of a thermally actuated switch. This class (428), subclasses 616+ provide for bimetal thermostat stock-materials*. Class 338 provides for electrical resistor stock-material* which is claimed in terms of its resistance characteristics.

Class 340 provides for articles* used in electrical communications.

Class 360 provides, especially in subclass 131 for a product, which may be layered or otherwise structured, which is particularly or uniquely designed or arranged to store or record information by a change or variation in the magnetic state of the device. The line between Classes 360 and 428 is as follows:

Class 379 provides for article* used in telephony.

1. A product recited as magnetic tape or storage will not suffice to place a patent in Class 360 in the absence of recitation of structure of the overall product or internal structure of the material, or function, unique to magnetic memory or recording.

2. Layered products of general utility or otherwise not provided for utility are classified in Class 428. A patent disclosing both a Class 360 and a Class 428 function, and in which the claims are generic to both disclosures on which has a claim specific to the Class 428 disclosure will be placed in Class 428 as an original.

(1) Note. The following examples are set out to serve as guidelines in determining placement of patents:


improved adhesion of magnetic layer to base, greater tensile strength of the layer (s) abrasion lubricated surface, improved flexibility, etc., are not considered to be be structure or properties peculiar to information recording or structure;


structure which is directed to improved signal-to-noise ratio, signal stability, nondestructive readout (N.D.R.O.), nonprint through of signal, signal identity, hysteresis loop, orientation or packing density of magnetic signal is significant for Class 360, and patents claiming such structure or function will be so classified. Class 429, subclasses 40+ provide for a catalytic fuel cell electrode structure, subclasses 129+ and 247+ for a battery separator or retainer, subclasses 209+ for a battery electrode and subclasses 233+ for a battery grid.

Class 439 provides for articles* which are electrical connectors. See the introduction to part 5 a, below.

5. Mechanical elements

a. Joints. Those classes or portions of classes which provide for joints and connections, viz, Class 160, subclass 42, Classes 277, 285, 403, and 439 take a connection or seal between two or more members at substantially a single locus where the structure or shape (e.g., ring, flange, angular relationship, etc.) of at least one of the members is specifically recited. For a mere joint or connection between two members defined merely by the compositions of the members, see this class, appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 630+ and 426+ where glass is one of the members.

Class 15 provides, in appropriate subclasses, especially subclasses 208+ for stock-material* product disclosed solely for use as a wiper, dauber or polisher for brushing, scrubbing and general cleaning.

Class 29, subclasses 76.1+ provide for an article* which is a file or rasp, and subclasses 95+ provide for an article* which is a cutter.

Class 30 and Class 83 provide for articles* which are cutting implements appropriate to each class.

Class 51 is referred to in part B, above.

Class 55 and 210 provide for filters, especially subclasses 522+ of the former and 500+ of the latter for such filter product manufactured of or including a specific material (e.g., fiber*, coating, etc.), or possessing specific structure (e.g., weave, knit, etc.). Class 55 takes its own stock-material* when it specifies that a gas separation takes

place or is about to take place. In Class 210 there must be claimed structure, internal or external, restricting the stock-material* to filter use. A filter generic to Classes 55 and 210 is placed in Class 210.

Class 131 is discussed in part C, 2, b, above.

Class 241, subclass 95 provides for a stationary comminuting surface having openings. c. Friction elements

Class 188, subclasses 250+, and Class 192, subclasses 107+ provide for a product with a frictional property, where said property is enhanced by claimed structure (external, such as disc surface configuration, or internal, such as discrete zones of friction material, particular arrangements of strands, fibers or layers), where the sole use disclosure is as a brake for Class 188, or as a clutch or brake for Class 192. Where the use of the product goes beyond these classes, or there is no claim to brake or clutch/brake features, placement in Class 428 is indicated. See also the reference to Class 52 in part C, 3, d, above.

d. Other machine elements

Class 101 provides for a product which is disclosed as a printing plate and has significant structure for printing (see subclass 395), or a nonuniform (e.g., hydrophylic-hydrophobic) coating only for printing purposes (see subclasses 453+), or a hectos:graphic surface (see subclass 473).

Class 152, subclasses 151+ provides for a resilient tire, subclasses 548+ for such tire formed of a particular material(s), and subclass 367 for a tire patch.

Class 346, subclasses 134+ provide for a single or plural layer web or sheet which is disclosed as a record receiver solely for use with apparatus provided for in (1) and (2) of the definition of that class.

(1) Note. A web or sheet disclosed as a record receiver of general utility, or for multiple uses, at least one of which is other than for a recorder apparatus provided for in Class 346, is classified in the appropriate subclass in Class 428, with a cross-reference to Class 346, if appropriate.

(2) Note. A web or sheet which has chart graduations thereon will be assigned to Class 346, subclass 135.1, regardless of its disclosure.

Class 411 provides for expanded, threaded, headed, or driven fasteners.

Class 416, subclasses 223+ provides for an article* which is an impeller or turbine blade.

Class 492, Roll or Roller, provide for rolls and rollers which claim enough of the surface and support structure to rotatably mount the roller. Hollow cylindrical rollers follow the line specified with regard to Class 138 in part C, 3, b, above. 6. Coating and coated products.

Class 148, Metal Treatment, subclasses 206-238 provide for processes of carburizing, nitriding, or both (e.g., carbonitriding, etc.) of solid metal, and subclasses 316-319 for the resulting stock.

Class 204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy, provides for the manufacture of stock-material* products by chemical processes involving electrical or wave energy, and except for products classifiable in this class (428), subclasses 544+, for a stock-material* product disclosed solely as made by a process which, per se, would be classified in Class 204. A multiple disclosure that the product can be manufactured by either a Class 204 process or another process (e.g., spray coating, electroless-depositing, etc.) indicates original classification in another class (e.g., 428, etc.), with a cross-reference, as needed, to Class 204.

Class 420 provides for alloys and compositions having a ontinuous phase of metal.

Class 427 provides for the method of applying a coating or impregnation to a substrate.

In relation above, the following guidelines are to be followed in determining whether a process step is significant for determining the classification of a patent containing only process claims in either Class 427 or Class 428:

(a) Any pretreatment or post treatment of a base or applied coating is significant, e.g., curing, drying or smoothing of the coating, or cleaning, drying or heating of the base, etc. General statements such as applying, impregnating, coating, covering, etc., or allowing to cure, allowing to dry, etc., are not considered to be significant method steps.

(b) Any specific recitation of the manner in which the coating material is applied, e.g., brushing, dipping, padding, spraying, immersing, is significant.

(c) Any limitations regarding the thickness of a coating or nonuniformity of a coating resulting from a process is considered to be significant.

(d) Specific recitations as to the condition of the coating material being applied are significant, except for the following: (1) Any condition also included in an independent composition or material claim, such as p4 concentration, etc.; (2) A general reference to the state of the coating

material as molten, in solution, in an organic or inorganic solvent, etc., unless accompanied by specific limiting conditions such as time or temperature (even though recited as ordinary temperature or room temperature, etc.). However, specifically recited solvents such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, sulfuric acid, etc., are considered to be significant.

Any patent having only process claims in which at least one significant limitation is recited, examples of which are given above, is placed in Class 427. All process claims having no significant limitation recited will be placed in Class 428. Special Note in relation to Class 427:

As a general rule, specific subclasses in Class 427 are not pointed out as pertinent fields of search. Class 427 should be considered, in all instances, for the disclosure of a product made by the process in the appropriately titled subclass.

7. Assembling and/or shaping. In general, the products of the following classes which provide for assembling and/or shaping methods are not classified in these classes, but in this class (428), or other appropriate product class: Classes 29, 65, 72, 76, 79, 82, 125, 156, 164, 219, 228, 264, and 413.

8. Other manufacturing or treating.

Class 261, subclasses 94+ and 100+ provide for apparatus under the class definition, including a porous mass* or porous sheet*, respectively, for providing intimate contact between a gas and a liquid.

9. Miscellaneous devices.

Class 16, subclasses 221+ provide for hinges of indefinite length.

Class 33, subclasses 12+ provide for stock-material* fabrics* with pattern lines (guide or gauge lines) thereon, and subclass 567 for a plural layer product disclosed solely for use as a gauge block.

Class 36 provides for an article* which is specifically shaped or contoured to be part of a boot, shoe, or legging, e.g., heel, innersole, vamp, etc.

Class 102 provides for an article* which is an explosive or ammunition device.

Class 116, subclass 22 provides for an article* which is an animal frightening device.

Class 165, subclass 185 provides for an article* which is a heat transmitter.

Class 267 provides for an article* which is a spring device.

Class 269 provides for an article* which is a work holder.

Class 280, subclasses 11.18 and 28 provide for an article* which is a runner or runner base for a land vehicle.

Class 288, subclasses 51-55 provide for articles* which are soldering irons.

Class 374, subclasses 529+ provide for articles* modified over and above the material or composition thereof, to produce motion as the result of changes in the thermal condition of the devices or structures, and subclasses 205+ provide for articles* combined with additional structure to form an arrangement which provides an indication produced from motion resulting from changes in the thermal condition of the articles*.

Class 376 provides for an article* which is a nuclear element and for stock-material* of such element having a unique adaptation for such use. For example, a jacketed material having passages for the escape of fission products is a unique adaptation, but a merely sheathed material is not.

Class 446, Amusement Devices: Toys, subclasses 217+ for spinning type toys which are similar in construction to special occasion ornaments for Class 428, subclasses 7+.

Classs 473, Amusement Devices: Games, subclasses 316+ for an article* which is a golf club shaft.


The following Search This Class, Subclass references are provided for convenience in locating the principal subclasses containing patents related to certain terms generally employed in the art.

D. CLATHRATES AND INTERCALATES Clathrates and intercalates (inclusion compounds), per se, are classified hierarchically and subject to the limitations set forth in the compound (element) classes based both on the encapsulant and encapsulate. For example, a clathrate of urea and hydrogen peroxide is classified in Class 564, subclass 32, urea and an organic compound in Class 564, subclass 1.5, dextran and iodine in Class 536, subclass 112, etc. Where a patent does not state that a material is either a clathrate or an intercalate, the assumption is made that the material is either a coated or encapsulated product classified in Class 428, subclasses 402+.

For art terms relating to nonstructural laminates - see section II, Glossary of Terms, Part B.


15, for artificial grass, sod, or turf

121+, for binding

542, and 577+ for a blank

23, for a bouquet

85+, for carpet (pile)

77+, 195+, and 919 for camouflage

175+, 193+, and 196+ for cloth

163, 167+, 182+, and 603+ for corrugated 40+, 77+, 411+, and 914+ for decalcomania

596+, for expanded metal

588+, for a fagot

85+, for fleece

163, 167+, and 599+ for fluted

158+, 304+, and 613+ for foam

585, 587, and 599 for ingot

38+, 67, and 614+ for inlay

, ???, for knitted

38, 44+, 53, 54+, 57+, and 67 for mosaic

62, and 91+ for nap

85, and 588+ for pile 123, for piping

75+, and 181 for pleated

143+, for roofing

438+, for safety glass

192+, for scalloped

38, for stained glass

605, for steel wool

28, and 115 for tassel

34, for Thermopane

, ???, for wire glass

175+, and 196 for woven GLOSSARY:

A. Structural

Glossary terms below are characterized as either A. Structural or B. Nonstructural or Composition. The terms are identified as such.

Terms or phrases used in titles and definitions either repeatedly or in a special and limited sense are set forth below with the meaning each is to have in this class. For economy of space, an asterisk (*) following a word indicates that reference should be had to this glossary for the specific meaning thereof while an asterisk following an hyphenated phrase, (e.g., strand-portion*, etc.) indicates that the entire hyphenated term, as such, has been defined in this glossary. Note. Where appropriate throughout the definition, the alternatively singular or plural forms of a noun have been indicated by the addition of (s) immediately following the noun, (e.g., layer(s) to mean a layer or layers, etc.).


Any multiunit chain which is the product of the reaction of unsaturated bonds in the units. The product may be the result of interaction of molecules of the same compound (as polyethylene) or of different compounds (as acryronitrile-styrene). Vinyl acetate and methyl methacrylate are included within the scope of the term because the monomeric units are linked through the reacted unsaturated bonds and the ester groups are pendant - i.e., the units are not linked through the ester groups. (Nonstructural or Composition)


A resin resulting from the reaction of an aldehyde or a ketone and a polyfunctional active hydrogen containing compound, which, with the elimination of water, produces a chain of alkylidene units alternating with the residue of the hydrogen supplying compound. Phenol formaldehyde, urea formaldehyde and polyamino (e.g., melamine) aldehyde or furfural resins are within the scope of the term. (Nonstructural or Composition)


Material derived from an animal and found there originally in

film or layer form, e.g., bladder, skin or scale. Glue or gelatin in a film form is not included here because neither exists in the animal as a layer or foil. (Nonstructural or Composition)

ASBESTOS A native magnesium calcium silicate. Asbestos is not considered to be included in the term "metal compound" for purposes of this class, but is included in silicon containing, unless specifically stated otherwise in a title or definition. (Nonstructural or Composition)


A discrete determinate three dimensional thing substantially in its ultimate use form, as distinguished from stock material (e.g., sheet, etc.) from which such articles may be manufactured. These articles are limited to subclasses 2 through 34.1, part of subclass 542 and subclass 576. (Structural)


That substance or material which has been covered or saturated or permeated, either partially or completely by another material. This term is synonymous with Substrate. (Structural)


A composition or compound having the characteristics of a tar or pitch no matter what the origin. This term includes all asphalts, bitumens, pitches and tars from coal, mineral oil, cotton seed pitch and the residue from the destructive distillation of wood, and natural oil distillations. Carbohydrate 1) polyhydroxy mono-aldehydes and polyhydroxy mono-ketones, generally having the formula Cn(H2O)m and substances which are hydrolized to these. The term includes cellulose, starch dextran, dextrin, sugar, and lignin. (Nonstructural or Composition)

(1) Note. Wheat paste, which contains gluten, is considered polyamide.


See definition of intermediate-article*. (Structural)


A relatively large piece of material whose thickness is many times that of a web* or sheet* compared with its width. (Structural) CARBON

Inorganic material. (Nonstructural or Composition)


A carbohydrate material derived from the structural matter of plant life, usually from the stems. The term includes lignocellulose (e.g., wood and bark) relatively pure cellulose (e.g., cotton and linen) and chemically modified forms of cellulose as cellophane, pyroxylin, viscose and rayon. While pyroxylin may be plasticized with minor amounts of camphor and/or castor oil, for purposes of classification, pyroxylin is considered cellulosic. (Nonstructural or Composition)


Clay containing, therefore silicon containing. (Nonstructural or Composition)


The outer bark of cork oak. The cork may be in the form of slabs or may be used as a filler in finely divided form. (Nonstructural or Composition)


A hole or a hollow place in a body. (Structural)

CELL A closed cavity (which may be empty or full) in a component*. (Structural)


A fabric* which for purposes of this class is considered to be made of mechanically intertwined, interlooped, interwoven, or intertangled strands*, strand-portions* or strand like strips*. See Class 442, class definition. (Structural)


A distinct unitary element of a composite stock material* which is longitudinally coextensive therewith and which, if separated from the remainder of such stock material*, would be recognized as a web*, sheet*, rod*, strand*, tube or block by itself. A component may consist of plural layers* as in the folded component shown in Figure 1. See also (2) Note under A, above. (Structural) [figure]


A stock-material* comprising a plurality of components*. (Structural)


A product having a plurality of constituents* or elements, none of which are in a defined spatial or ordered relationship to each other or to the surface or shape of the body in which they are contained, that is, a random mixture of elements. (Structural)


A discrete element* (e.g., strand*, fiber*, particle*, etc.) of a component* or product. CORE

intermediate portion of a composite* product. In a composite web* or sheet*, a core lies between two other components*; in a rod* or strand* or filament*, a core is the inner portion covered with another layer. If a core is claimed, per se, it is to be assumed for purposes of this class that the other layer(s)* or component(s)* are included. (Structural)


See definition of constituent*. (Structural)


A compound which is identical to that obtained by the replacing of a hydroxy hydrogen of an alcohol or a phenol with an acid radical. (Nonstructural or Composition)


The chemical grouping obtained by replacing the hydroxy hydrogen of an alcohol or a phenol with an acid radical. (Nonstructural or Composition)


A web*, sheet* or film disclosed as used in the manufacture of household furnishings (e.g., draperies, upholstery, etc) shoes, etc., roofing, clothing, tires, etc. and is claimed as a textile*, cloth* or fabric. See Class 442, class definition. (Structural)


A relatively short, slender, flexible element of macroscopic size and finite length and having a width and thickness of the same order of magnitude. A fiber is generally of staple length to facilitate its being spun, twisted or otherwise secured together into a composite strand but may be of shorter length requiring bonding, felting or matting to form a strand or layer. It may be of animal (e.g., wool, rabbit hair), vegetable (e.g., cotton, jute, hemp), or mineral (e.g., asbestos, glass, metal) origin and may be either natural, modified or synthetic. See also Filament. (Structural)


A fine threadlike body or structure whose width and thickness are of the same order of magnitude. See also fiber. (Structural)


A small thin mass having a width or length greater than its thickness. The term flake is considered to denote structure and is classified accordingly. (Structural)


An amorphous, hard, brittle, often transparent material comprising a fused mixture of the silicates of the alkali and alkaline earth, or heavy metals. Glass is not considered to be included in the term "metal compound" for purposes of this class, unless specifically included in a title or definition. (Nonstructural or Composition)


Inorganic material as is carbon. (Nonstructural or Composition)


See natural oil, gum, rosin or lac below. (Nonstructural or Composition)

INTERMEDIATE-ARTICLE A fully shaped article, all three dimensions of which are definite, even though one or more of these dimensions may be negligible. The article is not suitable for functional use in the claimed condition, but must be subjected to one or more further significant shaping steps to do more than merely occupy space. The following operations have been regarded as not involving a further significant shaping: (a) Assembling or uniting the article with other parts. (b) Distorting the article during an assembly operation to cause the article to conform to discrepancies in the size or shape of a coacting part. (c) Bonding or distorting those portions of the article which are to function as means for fastening the article to a coacting part, as, for example, the bending of ears or tabs. (Structural)


See natural oil, gum, rosin or lac below. (Nonstructural or Composition)


A single thickness of material(s) in the form of web* or sheet*, or a plurality of any of these in side-by-side coplanar relation; or particulate material arranged in continuity to constitute a distinct stratum. A layer may include a plurality of components* as in Figure 2. See also (2) Note under A, above. (Structural) [figure]


A body of material of indefinite or indeterminate shape. (Structural)


A material having a continuous phase of any element of the periodic table except hydrogen, a noble gas, a halogen, a chalcogen (oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium), nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon and boron. Elemental silicon is considered to be a metal, but a silicon compound is not considered to be a metal compound on the basis of silicon content. The term "metal compound" in a subclass title does not include glass or asbestos, unless specifically included by title or definition. The metal may be a pure metal or an alloy as defined in Class 75, Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures, subclass 122, (1) Note. An intermetallic compound of two or more metals, e.g., a metal silicide, aluminide, etc., is considered to be an alloy. (Nonstructural or Composition)


Composed entirely of metal* or having adjacent metal components. Since autogenous bonding of two metallic parts is thought to involve inherently either a diffusion or alloying between constituents of the two parts, this diffusion or alloy layer, even though of appreciable thickness, does not prevent the undiffused or unalloyed regions from being considered. (Structural) NATURAL OIL OR GUM, ROSIN OR LAC

Any oil, gum or resin that occurs in nature, as cottonseed, linseed and castor oils, rosin, mineral oil and the exudation of insects known as lac. These three classes of oil; drying, semidrying and nondrying oil are included within the scope of the term. (Nonstructural or Composition)


Containing the natural gum, know as caoutchouc, gutta percha, or balata obtained from the latex or sap of "rubber" trees. The word "rubber" standing alone is considered to denote natural rubber. (Nonstructural or Composition)


Those metals not readily oxidized, i.e., silver, gold, platinum, polladium, mercury, iridium, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium. (Nonstructural or Composition)


The surface of a web, sheet, layer or component on which both its length and width may be measured. See Figure 3. (Structural) [figure]


See natural oil, gum, rosin or lac, above. (Nonstructural or Composition)

PAPER Unless otherwise specified, is a sheet or web of waterlaid felted cellulosic fibers. May also be made of asbestos, mineral or synthetic fibers or blends of fibers, but must be so disclosed solely, or must be so claimed for placement in a subclass other than cellulosic or paper. (Nonstructural or Composition)


A very small quantity of matter, so small as to be considered without magnitude although possessing inertia and the force of attraction. (Structural)


A polymeric compound containing amide groups through which the monomers are linearly linked, except urea-aldehyde (for which see alddhyde or ketone condensation product). The term includes 1, the reaction products of polyamines and polybasic acids or 2, the polymer of amino acids (e.g., nylon, peptides and proteins). The manner in which the amide groups linearly link the monomers or moieties, of which the chain is built is s:graphically indicated by the below: (Nonstructural or Composition) [figure]

(1) Note. Wheat paste, which contains gluten, is considered to be a polyamide.

(2) Note. Polyamide also includes polyimide.

(3) Note. Urea-aldehyde condensation product is not included within the definition of polyamide since the product is significantly different from other polyamide resins and are similar to phenol-aldehyde resins. Hence, urea-aldehyde products are placed in the subclass providing for aldehyde-ketone condensation products.


A compound which is a polymer of linearly recurring amide and ester linkages. The monomers do not have to have an equivalent number of amide and ester groups and they do not have to occur in a regular pattern. The products of (1) a) polybasic acids b) polyhydric alcohols and c) polyamines or, (2) a mixture of hydroxy acids and amino acids or (3) polybasic acids and hydroxy amines are within the scope of the term. (Polyurethane is exemplary): The manner in which the ester and amide groups linearly link the monomers or moieties, of which the chain is built, is s:graphically indicated by the below structure. The ester groups need not be carboxylic esters but may be, e.g., sulfate ester groups. (Nonstructural or Composition) [figure]

POLYESTER A polymeric compound containing ester groups through which the monomers are linearly linked to each other. The manner in which the ester groups linearly link the monomers or moieties, of which the chain is built, is s:graphically indicated by the below structure. The ester groups need not be carboxylic esters but may also be, e.g., sulfate ester groups. (Nonstructural or Composition) [figure]


Included within the term polyamide. (Nonstructural or Composition)


A tiny opening, usually microscopic, through which certain fluids may pass. Generally, the pore opening is of such irregular direction that light will not pass through it. (Structural)


A mass of particles, that is, portions of matter so small that they are not ordinarily handled as individual units. According to Metals Handbook, 8th Edition, 1961, volume 1, page 28, powders currently used in powder metallurgy had a particle size within the range of 0.1 to 1000 microns in their largest dimension, as determined by screens or other suitable instruments. Powder particles generally are distinguished from filamentary particles in that their shape and length-to-diameter ratio are such that in the dry state the particles will not hold together as a massive article without the application of pressure or heat. (Structural)


A fused silicon dioxide (silica). (Nonstructural or Composition)


Various materials, but usually clays or other cementitious or silicon containing. Consider to be silicon unless clearly disclosed otherwise, as for example alumina. The refractory metals are those in Groups IVB, VB and VIB of the Periodic System. (Nonstructural or Composition) ROSIN

See natural oil, gum, rosin or lac. (Nonstructural or Composition)


A relatively rigid and slender element having a width and thickness of the same order of magnitude, a length which may be either indeterminate or finite, and a cross-section which may be of any shape. (Structural)


A portion of web* material of finite length, whose width is greater than its thickness, and which may be of any perimetric shape (e.g., triangle, circle, etc.). (Structural)


A sheet*, web*, rod*, strand*, tube or block, mass or layer. (Structural)


A relatively slender and flexible element* having a width and thickness of the same order of magnitude and a length which is either (a) indeterminate or (b) coextensive with the length or width of a sheet* or layer* with which it may be associated. A strand may be a monofilament or it may include either a plurality of filaments* or fibers* disposed in parallelism (e.g., tow) or constituent fibers* and/or filaments* knitted, plaited, braided, twisted, interlaced, interlocked or otherwise secured together to form a unit such as roving, thread, yarn, cord, rope or cable. (Structural)


A strand* of finite length; or an unsevered but determinate length of a strand. (Structural) STRIP

A web* or sheet* or relatively narrow ribbon-like material. A strip which is interwoven or intertangled with other strips or with strands, in the same manner as a strand, will be termed a "strand-like strip". (Structural)


See Base*. (Structural)


A fabric* which, for purposes of the class is considered to be cloth*. See Class 442, class definition. (Structural)


A compound described as a wax (e.g., beeswax) or having the physical characteristics of a wax or is a recognized wax (as carnauba). (Nonstructural or Composition)


A portion of material having length and width each greater than its thickness and with at least its longitudinal dimension indeterminate. A web may comprise (a) a single thickness of material or (b) a plurality of portions of a single piece of material folded on each other longitudinally or transversely, or (c) a plurality of individual web components* joined together in longitudinally coextensive face or edge contact to form a composite web. (Structural)

(1) Note. Unless clearly disclosed or claimed otherwise (e.g., as a rod*, mass*, filament*, etc.) a product will be placed in the appropriate web* or sheet* subclass. (2) Note. Included under the definition of component* or layer are the following: (a) The skin formed on a porous layer* by curing (e.g., a foam, etc.). (b) The "layer*" formed by impregnating a substrate to a defined depth which must be recited either relatively to the entire thickness or as an absolute dimension. (c) Either of a pair of layers* of the same material cohered or adhered together by their own forces, if disclosed as plural separate layers*.

(3) Note. For purposes of this class, paper* is limited to a waterlaid web* of interfelted cellulose* (natural) fibers*. A waterlaid web* of resin, polymer or modified cellulose* (e.g., cellulose acetate) fibers is excluded from the paper* subclasses and will be classified on other features (e.g., composition, etc.).

(4) Note. Where a subclass title includes a "coating" or "coat" or "coated layer*", a bonded or adhered component or layer* is intended to be included within the scope thereof. Thus, a product formed by laminating or adhering two separate and distinct layers* is considered to be the equivalent of a product made by applying a coating of a material onto a base* or substrate*.


The material of trunks and branches of trees or bushes, excluding bark. This term includes lumber and finely divided wood chips, fibers or flour. "Fiber board" from wood fibers

or pulp will be considered wood or paper depending on the disclosure of the document in which this expression occurs. Fiber board formed by compression of wood fibers with or without a binder (and utilized as wood) is considered wood. Fiber board which is water laid (and, used as cardboard or paste board) is considered paper. (Nonstructural or Composition)


A stock-material* not suitable for functional use in the claimed condition, but requiring one or more further significant shaping steps to do more than occupy space. Usually it is the cross-sectional configuration which is to be further shaped. See the definition of intermediate-article* for a list of operations not considered to be significant shaping.